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Showing posts with label Tutorial. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tutorial. Show all posts

Friday, June 19, 2020

Linux Series #3: Open Source

Hello Everyone. This post is about Open Source. At the end of this post, you will get an idea of what Open Source means.

What is Open Source?

If you come across someone saying, "It's an Open Source Software", you might wonder what it means? Does it mean, the software is free? Does it mean it gives full privacy? 

If the software is Open Sourced, then it means that the source code of that particular software is available for the public. Anyone can view and modify it for their personal or other purposes. For example, when it comes to Windows you have to pay to get a genuine copy. Whereas when it comes to Linux, the genuine copy is available for free. In this case, Windows is known as Proprietary Software and Linux is said to be an Open Source Operating System.

Why Open Source? What are its benefits?

Let's say I came up with a Software called "X". Now I am Open Sourcing it.  Since the Source Code is available to all, a lot of people will start exploring the code. Here development is done Collaboratively. Many People will show interest to contribute to my software with new ideas, unlike Proprietary Softwares where only the Company or the Owner is responsible for innovative ideas. More the number of people from different background work in the project better the quality of review will be. For an Open Source Project, reviews and suggestions can be made by anyone, from anywhere. Open Source never guarantees that the software is always free. And do not confuse Open Source with Privacy issues. 

Some of the features of Open Source are,

 Peer and Community Review
In the field of Artificial Intelligence, Cloud Computing and Data Science, a a lot of innovations occur and most of them are derived from Open Source.

Examples of Popular Open Source Sofware are,
 Linux OS
 Android OS
When you discuss Open Source, you will come across the terms OSI  ( Open Source Initiative ) and FSF ( Free Software Foundation ) and Licenses.


Free Software Foundation (FSF)

Richard Stallman came up with this foundation to promote the growth of free and open-source software. During his time he saw increased usage of proprietary Softwares which denied the users their freedom to access and modify the source code. So he designed an Open Source Operating System called GNU (GNU is Not Unix). The word "free" in FSF doesn't mean that the software is available at free cost, it refers to the "freedom" of the users. FSF promoted and provided Funding for free software development. According to him, the software has to follow the below regulations to be recognised by FSF.
 Freedom to run the program for their own personal use.
 Freedom to access and examine how the program functions, and change it so that it performs as per the instructions.
 Freedom to redistribute the copies.
 Freedom to redistribute copies of your modified versions.
 One of the most popular licenses offered by FSF is the GNU General Public License v3. To see the complete list of available FSF licenses, check here.

Open Source Initiative (OSI)

OSI is a non-profit organisation, found by B.Perens and Raymond in 1998. The aim of this organisation is to spread the principles of Open Source. You can check the licenses here. Like FSF, OSI too had their own regulations.

1. Free Redistribution

The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The license shall not require a royalty or other fees for such sale.

2. Source Code

The program must include source code and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost, preferably downloading via the Internet without charge. The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program. Deliberately obfuscated source code is not allowed. Intermediate forms such as the output of a preprocessor or translator are not allowed.

3. Derived Works

The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.

4. The integrity of The Author's Source Code

The license may restrict source-code from being distributed in modified form only if the license allows the distribution of "patch files" with the source code to modify the program at build time. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.

5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups

The license must not discriminate against any person or group of persons.

6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor

The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavour. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research.

7. Distribution of License

The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties.

8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product

The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of particular software distribution. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution.

9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software

The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.

10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral

No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.

Source: https://opensource.org/docs/osd
Hope you got an Idea what Open Source means.
Share if you find it useful. And Comment if there is any doubts/room for improvement.

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Sunday, January 24, 2016

How to Pick a Best Domain for your Blogging?

Hello Friends,
That is very important If you are a Starter on Blogging and your only goal is to earn money on that condition it will be hard for you to stick with blogging. Because blogging is a long journey. If you have startup your journey with blogging then you have to continue with it many years.
Few bloggers left blogging because they quit and tired of doing the same thing daily, because they do not see the results of their blog immediately.
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Thursday, June 4, 2015

Parse Emails in PHP

Problem statement : 1.
Extracting information from emails in PHP (eg-attachments) ; 2. Simulating a daemon using PHP.

Extracting information from emails in PHP

Email Protocols 
Popular protocols for retrieving mail include POP3 and IMAP4, sending mail is usually done using the SMTP protocol.
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Thursday, December 4, 2014

81% of Tor Users Can be Easily Unmasked By Analysing Router Information

Hi friends,
Tor has always been a tough target for law enforcement for years and FBI has spent millions of dollars to de-anonymize the identity of Tor users, but a latest research suggests that more than 81% of Tor clients can be "de-anonymised" by exploiting the traffic analysis software ‘Netflow’ technology that Cisco has built into its router protocols.
NetFlow is a network protocol designed to collect and monitor network traffic. It exchanged data in network flows, which can correspond to TCP connections or other IP packets sharing common characteristics, such UDP packets sharing source and destination IP addresses, port numbers, and other information.
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Crash Your Friends WhatsApp Remotely with Just a Message

Hi friends,

Indian researchers have discovered a flaw in WhatsApp that allows anyone to remotely crash the popular mobile app by sending a specially crafted message.

A “nice” vulnerability has been discovered in the popular messaging app WhatsApp that could be exploited by an attacker to remotely crash the mobile app just by sending a specially crafted message. The news was reported by two Indian security researchers that contacted the colleagues at ‘The
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Tuesday, May 27, 2014

DDos Attack ?

Hi Friends,
Like us on facebook https://www.facebook.com/justhackitnow
If you are working in the field of computer networks or an enthusiast in the field of network security, you are sure to have come across the term “Denial of Service attack” which is simply referred to as “DoS attack”. Today, this is one of the most common types of network attacks carried out on the Internet. In this post, I will try to explain DoS attack, its variants and methods involved to carry out the same in an easily understandable manner.
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Friday, November 22, 2013

Man In the Middle attack using BT5 Ettercap Tutorial


Ettercap is a suite for man in the middle attacks on LAN (local area network ). It features sniffing of live connections, content filtering on the fly and many other interesting tricks.It supports active and passive dissection of many protocols (even ciphered ones) and includes many feature for network and host analysis. In this tutorial i will explain how to sniff (user names,passwords) in LAN using Ettercap.....

The man-in-the-middle attack (also known as a bucket-brigade attack and abbreviated MITM) is a form of active  eavesdropping  in which the attacker makes independent connections with the victims and relays messages between them, making them believe that they are talking directly to each other over a private connection when in fact the entire conversation is controlled by the attacker

There are several kinds man in the middle attacks that we can perform, But in this tutorial we will see attacks based on the ARP protocol

Steps to be followed 

1. Open terminal  and type ettercap -G. This will open GUI based ettercap utility ....
2. Now scan for hosts in your sub net  by going to Hosts ---> scan for hosts

3.   Now open host list from hosts tab and select the IP address of the victim as target 1 and IP address of the router as target 2.

4.. Now start ARP poisoning by going to mitm ---> ARP Poisoning 

Finally start the sniffer by going to start ---> start sniffing . Now if the victim logs into gmail , face book yahoo mail...etc .we will get his user name and password  

Hope you Enjoyed the article, In my coming posts i will be writing about the countermeasures that you can take against ARP poisoning , MITM ..etc .Till then have a nice time

If you have any doubts please feel free to post a comment.....:) :)

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Monday, January 7, 2013

How To Install Windows In Android Tablet

First step: Android SDK
To get started, you will need to install the Android SDK. The reason being is you’ll need the program “adb” which essentially allows you in debug mode to issue commands to the phone (like installing programs) you can get and install the sdk here: http://developer.android.com/sdk/index.html
Actually getting set up with a working development environment for Android is a whole other story – you’ll need a IDE like Eclipse. But for now, all we’re concerned about is that adb program in the tools subdirectory.
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Monday, December 3, 2012

Five Hacks To Make Using Your iPhone Easier

Hi Friends,
The iPhone is one of the most advanced personal electronic devices in the world. One little machine can do so many things. But there are ways to make using the iPhone even easier and more efficient. Here are the top five hacks for your iPhone to make it faster, do more things, and unlock more features.

 Many of these hacks can also be done to other smartphones, such Androids or Windows Phones. The exact steps may be different, but accomplish the same thing.

 Root/Jailbreak your iPhone

Doing this is not for the faint of heart and can void your warranty, but will allow you to use the iPhone's
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Thursday, July 12, 2012

How to : 20 Awesome Google Maps Tips and Tricks

Even if you are regularly using Google maps, probably few of the tips mentioned below might be new to you.

1. Set Home and Work Location

Click on “My places” (located on the top left-side) and set your “Home” and “Work” address. This way, later when you are getting a direction from your home or work, instead of typing the full address, you can just type “home” (or) “work”.
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Friday, May 25, 2012

Nmap 6 Released For Download - Network Discovery & Security Auditing Tool

Hi Friends,
It’s been a while since the last major release of Nmap. The latest major version has just been released, version 6 – and is now available for download!

Nmap (Network Mapper) is a security scanner originally written by Gordon Lyon used to discover hosts and services on a computer network, thus creating a "map" of the network. To accomplish its goal, Nmap sends specially crafted packets to the target host and then analyzes the responses. Unlike many simple port scanners that just send packets at some predefined constant rate, Nmap accounts for the
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Wednesday, May 9, 2012

How To Undo Send An Email Till 30 Seconds After Sending It in Gmail

Hi Friends,
Much ago, Gmail launched a feature named “Undo send” . It is a feature of the Gmail Labs. Gmail Labs has many cool features, some are for fun and some are really very useful. So, one of the feature, Undo Send, allows us to undo the sent email even after 30 seconds of pressing the send button. So isn’t that cool. If you pressed the send button and later on notice that you made a mistake or wanted to alter something , then you can straight away press the Undo button and the email will be saved in the Drafts folder.

Steps to activate the undo send feature in Gmail :
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New Dropbox Update Lets You Easily Share Files & Folders With Anyone

Hi Friends,
Sharing large files is becoming increasingly easier, and even more so with this new update from Dropbox. The new update adds the ability to share any file or folder in your Dropbox with anyone, with just a few simple clicks.
Up until now, you could share your Dropbox content with other Dropbox users, or share the content of your public folder with non-Dropbox users. This is no longer the case. Now, all you have to do in order to share a folder is to access it using the Dropbox desktop client or the web interface, and from the Dropbox context menu choose “Get Link”. This will generate a public link for your content.
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Monday, April 16, 2012

How to download torrent when torrent trackers are banned!

Torrent is a peer-to-peer file sharing protocol used to download large data over the Internet. It has been one of the most popular methods for downloading latest movies, TV series, music and cracked software these days.
But for various reasons many admins block connections to torrent networks preventing the users from acquiring the torrents files. Other issues that might prevent people using Torrent can be copyright infringement or bandwidth abuse.
For those who are addicted to torrent and for some reason are not able to make use of it, there are alternative ways to bypass torrent blocking. We can convert the torrent files into direct downloads and use it. We give you two ways to make use of the torrent file without using the torrent protocol.


ZbigZ is one of the most easy and hassle free ways to download torrent files. It’s a child’s play to download from ZbigZ. You don’t even need to sign up for downloading using ZbigZ.
1. First visit any good torrent website like ThePiratebay, torrentz.com or the one you prefer and browse the torrent you want to download.
2. Then paste the link of .torrent file you want to download or upload the torrent file if you had already downloaded the .torrent file and click on Go Free.

3. Here, the server takes some time to make your File ready for downloading. Wait until the Green Color download button in the right hand side of the page appears

4. Then Click on the Button to start your Download
5. A new window will appear which will ask another question. Click on “Free” so that you can download it for free

The best part of ZbigZ is that it works well with Internet Download Manger. So, you can speed up your downloads using IDM.


Bitlet, with its simple interface seems much easier than ZbigZ. But being a torrent client, it’s still possible that the traffic gets blocked by the admin.
There is a chance that it might work on your connection, it might not. It’s worth trying, though. It worked for me after trying for a number of times.
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Wednesday, April 11, 2012

Google Unveils Dart, an alternative to Javascript

Hi Friends,
Google today launched an "early preview" of Dart, a programming language the company hopes will help Web application programmers overcome shortcomings of JavaScript that Google itself feels acutely.

Programmer and project leader Lars Bak detailed the project in a talk today at the Goto conference conference today in Denmark and in a blog post. Dart is geared for everything from small, unstructured projects to large, complicated efforts--Gmail and Google Docs, for example.
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Quick Tips to Backup your Linux Computer

Hi Friends,
Linux gives you plenty of control over your computer, but with great power comes great responsibility. That means backing up your files regularly (among other things), and while cloud storage is attractive, for many of us, it's not enough. Here's how to back up your data (note: I am using Ubuntu, so the details may differ somewhat if you use a different distribution):

Related Post: 16 Cool Ubuntu Tips for Linux Users

1. From the search bar, just type "backup" to bring up preinstalled options. I'll be using Simple Backup Suite.

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Monday, March 12, 2012

How to Block Unwanted Websites without Any Software

What do you mean by "Blocking Websites" ?

This question is likely to arise in the minds of newbies so I'll just give a gist of it. By blocking a website you can prevent your children or anyway using your computer to access that particular website.For Instance,If i block "www.yahoo.com" then no one from my computer would be able to view "Yahoo !" but instead it would be redirected to some other site !

So now lets move on!
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Sunday, March 11, 2012

Cloud Computing : How it works..An Introduction!!

Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is a technology that uses the internet and central remote servers to maintain data and applications. 
Cloud computing allows consumers and businesses to use applications without installation and access their personal files at any computer with internet access. 
 This technology allows for much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, processing and bandwidth.
A simple example of cloud computing is Yahoo email, Gmail, or Hotmail etc. 
You dont need a software or a server to use them. 
All a consumer would need is just an internet connection and you can start sending emails. The server and email management software is all on the cloud ( internet) and is totally managed by the cloud service provider Yahoo , Google etc. 
The consumer gets to use the software alone and enjoy the benefits. The analogy is , 'If you need milk , would you buy a cow ?' 
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Show Old Start Menu in Windows 8 Consumer Preview

Hi Friends,

We all know that Microsoft has replaced Start Button with Start Screen in their latest windows 8 consumer preview. So many users finds difficulty from where they start.

So Today, Here I’m sharing a tool which help you to show or get back the old start menu on your latest windows 8 installation.

This Free tool is Start8 developed by StarDock, which brings back the old Start Menu in Windows 8 Consumer Preview. Start8 adds the similar windows button icon(start button icon) on taskbar which we used in windows 7, you can also add your own Start Button image.

When you click on the start menu then it will open the Metro app search screen(win+Q) with a small screen as below.

Features of Start8:-
- Adds a “Start” menu to the Windows 8 taskbar
- Enables quick access and searching of your installed applications
- Adds Run… option via right-click menu
- Adds Shutdown… option via right-click menu
- Choose a custom Start button image

Download Start from Here
Enjoy It...
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Saturday, March 10, 2012

Important Keyboard Shortcut for Windows 8 Consumer Preview

Hi friends,

Microsoft has released the Beta version (Consumer Preview) of windows 8 which is their new and upcoming operating system. As you also know that Windows 8 was basically designed for Touch Screen, So it came with a new interface and also in windows 8 beta version there is not any start menu, So many users are struggling to use it with Keyboard and Mouse.

Here in this post I am going to show you some Key board short-cuts for Windows 8 Consumer Preview which can help you to quickly access menus and
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